Czech Philharmonic performs with conductor Tomáš Netopil and cellist Trul Mørk in Luzern, Switzerland.
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Jealousy, Adagio for orchestra
Cello Concerto in B minor, Op. 104
Symphony No. 8 in G major, Op. 88
Truls Mørk’s compelling performances, combining fierce intensity, integrity and grace, have established him as one of the most pre-eminent cellists of our time.
He has appeared with orchestras including the Orchestre de Paris, Staatskapelle Dresden, Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra, the New York Philharmonic, Boston Symphony, Chicago Symphony and Cleveland orchestras amongst others. Conductor collaborations include Myung-Whun Chung, Mariss Jansons, Esa-Pekka Salonen, Gustavo Dudamel, Sir Simon Rattle, and Christoph Eschenbach.
Forthcoming highlights include concerts with the London Philharmonic Orchestra (Vladimir Jurowski), Berliner Philharmoniker (Alan Gilbert), Philharmonia Orchestra (Jakub Hrůša), Wiener Symphoniker and Czech Philharmonic Orchestra (both with James Gaffigan), hr-Sinfonieorchester (David Zinman), and Münchner Philharmoniker (Lionel Bringuier). Truls Mørk will tour with the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra (Mariss Jansons) to London and Paris, and with the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (Neeme Järvi), where he performs Brahms’ Double Concerto with Vadim Repin. In North America, Mørk collaborates with Vadim Repin in summer 2013 performing Brahms’ Double Concerto at the Mostly Mozart Festival under David Afkham, and with the Montreal Symphony Orchestra (Kent Nagano) as well as a return to The Philadelphia Orchestra (Yannick Nézet-Séguin) which will include a performance at Carnegie Hall. Mørk makes a return to both the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra and Sydney Symphony in 2014, which will be followed by a European tour with the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra under Sir Andrew Davis.
Truls Mørk continues to give regular recitals at major venues and festivals throughout the world.
As part of the 2011 Bergen International Festivalhe performed the complete Beethoven Cello Sonatas over two evenings, together with the Variations for cello and piano – last presented at the Festival in this format by Jacqueline du Pré in 1970.
Truls Mørk is a committed performer of contemporary music and in spring 2012 gave the UK premiere of Rautavaara’s Towards the Horizon with the BBC Symphony Orchestra. Other premieres have included Pavel Haas’ Cello Concerto with the Wiener Philharmoniker (under Jonathan Nott), Krzysztof Penderecki's Concerto for Three Cellos with the NHK Symphony Orchestra (Charles Dutoit) and Haflidi Hallgrimsson’s Cello Concerto, co-commissioned by the Oslo Philharmonic, Iceland Symphony and Scottish Chamber orchestras.
Rautavaara’s Towards the Horizon was recorded for Ondine with the Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra under John Storgårds and nominated for a Grammy Award. Mørk’s recording of the highly acclaimed Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach Cello Concerti disc for Virgin Classics with Les Violons du Roy under Bernard Labadie was awarded a 2011 ECHO Klassik Award. Other recordings include the Brahms Double Concerto with the Gewandhausorchester Leipzig and Riccardo Chailly and Vadim Repin on Deutsche Grammophon, and Haflidi Hallgrímssonʼs works for cello and orchestra for Ondine. For Virgin Classics, amongst others he has also recorded Schumannʼs Cello Concerto with Paavo Järvi and the Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France, the complete Bach Cello Suites as well as the Britten Cello Suites, which won a Grammy Award in 2002.
Initially taught by his father, Truls Mørk continued his studies with Frans Helmerson, Heinrich Schiff and Natalia Schakowskaya. His numerous awards include the Norwegian Critics’ Prize in 2011 and the 2010 Sibelius Prize. Truls Mørk plays on the rare 1723 Domenico Montagnana ‘Esquire’.
“I am immensely honored to be part of an artistic team with the potential to follow up fully on the artistic legacy of Jiří Bělohlávek and to further refine the orchestra into the form of perfect musical joy. For me, working with this orchestra is at once a great obligation, a challenge, and a pleasure.“
Tomáš Netopil, who studied violin and conducting both in his native Czech Republic with Jiří Bělohlávek and under the guidance of Jorma Panula at the Royal College of Music in Stockholm, made his debut with the Czech Philharmonic in 2007 in a programme of Haydn, Sibelius and Novák. He has subsequently returned to conduct the Orchestra on twelve occasions, most recently in its New Year’s Day concert in 2015. In October 2017, the Orchestra appointed him as Principal Guest Conductor from 2018/19 season together with Jakub Hrůša.
His broad repertoire reflects his Czech heritage with recent performances including Janáček’s Makropulos Case (Vlaamse Opera in Antwerp); The Cunning Little Vixen (Semperoper Dresden, Vienna Staatsoper); Kát’a Kabanová (Vienna Staatsoper); and Dvořák’s Rusalka (Vienna Staatsoper) sitting alongside Busoni’s Dr Faust (Dresden Semperoper); Mozart’s Così fan tutte (Vienna Staatsoper); and Halévy’s La Juive (Vlaamse Opera).
Tomáš Netopil was appointed Music Director of the Aalto Theatre and Philhmarmonie Essen in 2013. In addition to his opera commitments which have included productions of Verdi’s Macbeth, Mozart’s Don Giovanni and La Clemenza di Tito, Wagner’s Lohengrin and The Flying Dutchman, and Strauss’ Elektra and Der Rosenkavalier, Netopil is also a regular presence on the concert platform. Before moving to Essen, he was Music Director of the Prague National Theatre and Estates Theatre for four years.
In addition to his work in the opera house, Netopil has conducted the Berliner Philharmoniker, the Gewandhaus Orchester Leipzig, the Dresdner Staatskapelle, Sinfonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks, MDR Sinfonieorchester Leipzig, RSB Berlin, Konzerthausorchester Berlin, Frankfurter Museumsorchester, Staatsorchester Stuttgart, Wiener Symphoniker, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Philharmonia Orchestra, BBC Philharmonic Orchestra, Tonhalle Orchester Zürich, Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, Orchestre de Paris, Rotterdams Philharmonisch Orkest, Orchestre National du Capitol Toulouse, Orchestre National de Montpellier, Orchestre National de Lille, Orchestra Filarmonica della Scala Milano, Orchestra dell´Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, Roma, Orchestra del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, Orchestra Nazionale della RAI Torino, Filarmonica Arturo Toscanini Parma, Sydney Symphony Orchestra, Royal Stockholm Philharmonic, Oslo Philharmonie, Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, NHK Symphony Orchestra and Dallas Symphony Orchestra.
The year 1896 was important for the history of Czech music for two reasons: on 4 January, the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra was founded, and on 19 March, Antonín Dvořák conducted the premiere of his Cello Concerto in B minor, Op. 104 during his ninth and final concert tour in England. Although Dvořák was very happy about this composition, even writing about the “pure joy” which this work brought to him, in his modesty he could not know or guess that it would become one of his most frequently performed pieces, and for many people the best cello concerto ever, sometimes called the “king”. The paradox is that Dvořák had never been particularly drawn to the concertante form and did not recognise the cello as a solo instrument: he actually complained that it “whinges up above, and grumbles down below”. Nevertheless, by serendipitous circumstances, in the autumn of 1894 he decided to compose a concerto for cello. His first attempt at a solo concerto for this instrument was made almost thirty years ago, but Dvořák held this early concerto in such low regard that he did not mind the loss of its autograph (found after the composer’s death) and never included it in any list of his works.
The first and the most important impulse for Dvořák to choose this genre was a cello concerto by the American composer and cellist Victor Herbert. At that time, Dvořák was the director of the National Conservatory in New York; Herbert taught the cello there and was also the principle cellist with the New York Philharmonic Society. Dvořák was so excited by Herbert’s work that he studied its score in great detail and several months later began to compose his own cello concerto. Perhaps in line with the deeply intimate Biblical Songs created in the spring of 1894, Dvořák continued on this personal level, revealing in his new work his experiences at that particular time in his life: being homesick and missing his children (except for his son Otakar who was with him in the U.S., his other five children remained in Bohemia), longing after his summer home in Vysoká, where he could work undisturbed, and reminiscing about gravely ill Josefina Kounitzová, his sister-in-law and friend, whom Dvořák had loved in the past. The combination of Dvořák’s creative élan and inner melancholy gave rise to his innermost composition, dominated by a firm compositional order, which is not without hope. Josefina is memorialized in the concerto by the melody of Dvořák’s song Leave Me Alone from the cycle Four Songs, Op. 82, of which Josefina was particularly fond.
The concerto is in three movement. It opens with a grandiose orchestral introduction, expanding from two main themes. While the first is characterized by bigger melodic intervals, the second theme consists of a sweet, gentle melody. A seemingly spontaneous idea was born after a long and laborious struggle, after which Dvořák found its correct form. He himself admitted that the lyrical theme of the introductory Allegro made him tremble. In the second movement he went even further, creating one of his most impressive lyrical expressions. This is where the quotation from the song Leave Me Alone is heard. Then comes the rondo, which represents the symbol of hope, of resurrection after a dark night on the cross, an image of the pain transformed. Dvořák wrote it a few weeks before he left New York for good; this might be why it is elated by an eager expectation, which, however, was spoiled upon Dvořák’s return to Bohemia by the news of Josefina’s premature death. In response to this sad fact, Dvořák radically changed the conclusion of the whole concert, inserting a new section of sixty bars before the original short coda, after which the solo violin again quotes Josefina’s favourite song.
The world premiere of the concerto was held in London’s Queen’s Hall on 19 March 1896 and was conducted by the composer himself. Originally, the composition was to be premiered by Dvořák’s close friend and mentor of the cello part, Hanuš Wihan, to whom the work was dedicated, but in the end its performance was entrusted to a young English cellist, Leo Stern. It is rumoured that the change of cellists was caused by Wihan’s rather insensitive insistence to play his own virtuoso cadenza, which Dvořák resolutely rejected, but the real reason was probably bad timing. Stern went to see Dvořák in Bohemia and worked hard with him, practising almost seven hours a day in order to master it because the composition was extremely difficult for him in terms of intonation. Stern also presented the work at the Prague premiere on 11 April 1896 and later in Leipzig, Chicago and New York.
For Dvořák, 1889, in which he finished Symphony No. 8 in G major, Op. 88, was a successful year indeed. He was offered the post of professor of composition at the Prague Conservatory and the National Theatre premiered his opera The Jacobin. The general interest in his music was further boosted by his fruitful visits to England.
Dvořák was absorbed in work on his Eighth Symphony from 28 August to 8 November, with the bulk of the time spent at his summer residence in Vysoká, the place he felt the most at ease. Yet the idyllic creative atmosphere was disturbed by a dispute with his “chief” publisher, Simrock, which ultimately resulted in an interruption of their co-operation for three years. Dvořák’s opus 88 was hence published by the London-based Novello. The symphony was subsequently given the subtitle “English”. In its basic features – four movements and their tempo scheme – Dvořák’s Eighth retains the structure of a classical symphony. Nevertheless, the work is striking owing to numerous innovations and a varied succession of changing moods. As the composer himself put it, he strove to treat themes and motifs in other than the “usual, universally used and acknowledged forms”.
Symphony No. 8 was premiered, with Dvořák himself conducting, on 2 February 1890 at the Rudolfinum in Prague within the popular Umělecká beseda society concerts. On 24 April of the same year it was performed in London at a Philharmonic Society concert at St. James’s Hall. An English reviewer wrote: “Although, just like Brahms, striving to adhere to the Beethoven school, Dvořák is the only one who is able to employ a distinctly new element in a symphony.” The Viennese critic Eduard Hanslick described the piece as follows: “This is one of Dvořák’s finest pieces……His works demonstrate an original personality, and this personality breathes the refreshing spirit of something novel and original.”
Noteworthy too is Dvořák’s commentary following the London premiere: “The concert turned out splendidly, dare I say as well as any other before… I was called several times to the stage – by and large, it was as nice and sincere as at the premieres at home in Prague. So I am satisfied and thank God that it has turned out so well!”
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